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The Future of Middle Class Jobs

Technology has exploded through the American economy over the past thirty years, bringing automation through computers and robots to scores of professions that previously required a heavy human touch.Buy Xiamen Shun Stone Marble tiles at below wholesale prices.

Economists David Autor and David Dorn took up this topic in yesterdays New York Times, noting that the multi-trillionfold decline in the cost of computing since the 1970s has created enormous incentives for employers to substitute increasingly cheap and capable computers for expensive labor, incentives that have reawakened fears that workers will be displaced by machinery.

They begin by emphasizing that a starting point for discussion is the observation that although computers are ubiquitous, they cannot do everything.Computers excel at routine tasks: organizing, storing, retrieving and manipulating information, or executing exactly defined physical movements in production processes. These tasks are most pervasive in middle-skill jobs like bookkeeping, clerical work and repetitive production and quality-assurance jobs, and so, logically, computerization has reduced the demand for these jobs.

At the same time, computerization has boosted demand for workers who perform nonroutine tasks that complement the automated activities, and those tasks happen to lie on opposite ends of the occupational skill distribution.

At one end are so-called abstract tasks that require problem-solving, intuition, persuasion and creativity. These tasks are characteristic of professional, managerial, technical and creative occupations, like law, medicine, science, engineering, advertising and design. These generally high-education, high-skill jobs have done very well in the new economy, as they benefit from computers that facilitate the transmission, organization and processing of information.

On the other end are so-called manual tasks, which require situational adaptability, visual and language recognition, and in-person interaction. Preparing a meal,Removable double sided tapes include both film and foam coated on at least one side with a removable adhesive. driving a truck through city traffic or cleaning a hotel room present mind-bogglingly complex challenges for computers.Sdktapegroup aluminum foil tapes is a team of highly qualified professionals working together to provide our customers with the highest quality products But they are straightforward for humans, requiring primarily innate abilities like dexterity, sightedness and language recognition, as well as modest training. These workers cant be replaced by robots, but their skills are not scarce, so they usually make low wages.

Computerization has therefore fostered a polarization of employment, with job growth concentrated in both the highest- and lowest-paid occupations, while jobs in the middle have declined, they continue. Overall employment has not declined as a result of computerization, but as employment in routine jobs has ebbed, employment has risen both in high-wage managerial, professional and technical occupations and in low-wage, in-person service occupations, and so computerization is not reducing the quantity of jobs, but rather degrading the quality of jobs for a significant subset of workers.

In looking for solutions to help the disrupted, one common recommendation is that citizens should invest more in their education, but only a (relatively stable) fraction of Americans seem suited for traditional college educations, and boosting enrollment rates will not necessarily benefit anyone beyond college administrations.

Not all hope is lost for the middle economy, however, for while many middle-skill jobs are susceptible to automation, others demand a mixture of tasks that take advantage of human flexibility. They lavish particular praise on the prospects for medical paraprofessionals, the radiology technician, phlebotomist, nurse technician, as jobs that usually only need some degree of vocational training, not a four-year degree.

These middle-skill jobs will persist, and potentially grow, because they involve tasks that cannot readily be unbundled without a substantial drop in quality, such as the frustration of calling a software firm for technical support, only to discover that the technician knows nothing more than the standard answers shown on his or her computer screen that is, the technician is a mouthpiece reading from a script, not a problem-solver.

They forsee numerous jobs for people in the skilled trades and repair: plumbers; builders; electricians; heating, ventilation and air-conditioning installers; automotive technicians; customer-service representatives; and even clerical workers who are required to do more than type and file, in addition to medical paraprofessionals, thanks to the need for workers [that] will adeptly combine technical skills with interpersonal interaction, flexibility and adaptability to offer services that are uniquely human.

Much of what Autor and Dorn say is true, and jobs that enable people to employ their full faculties will increase both their productivity and human flourishing. Such would be the ideal scenario for any economy. What Autor and Dorn neglect, however, is that such jobs and such an economy are not constructed merely because the supply of human labor with faculties to offer is plentiful.My way of applying kapton tape to Glass plates for RepRap style 3d Printers.

Instead, it requires an richer understanding of human flourishing than we have heretofore seen much evidence of to pervade the ideas shaping our economy. As Matt Crawford so skillfully documented in his book Shop Class as Soulcraft, the ideas of scientific management that launched the twentieth century, putting men on the clock and endeavoring to routinize as much labor as possible so that it could be planned by expert managers, continue to shape what our jobs look like today.

Many of the jobs that have now been computerized, such as the rote assembly line worker, were themselves products of that routinizing crusade of Frederick Taylor and his contemporaries, who drove out skilled tradesmen in their effort to transfer the conscious component of labor into managements hands, and reduce their men to machines. Computerization merely finishes the job.

As the tech economy progresses, there is tremendous potential for a humane economy that encourages human flourishing and increases welfare across all measures. But it will require a theory of labor richer than those currently at hand to pervade our society, and guide what we build. Should the ideas of the past continue apace, the high-skill elite will continue to automate as much as they can, developing various forms of artificial intelligence to simulate human judgment, achieving just enough accuracy to pay off.

Such an economy may even produce enough wealth to support the displaced with a generous enough welfare state to keep genuine misery (and upheaval) at bay. That may be what we are beginning to see the Social Security Disability program become.

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Duct dreams

Hailey Rose, an 11-year-old student at Reynolds Elementary School in Transfer, Pa., has always enjoyed making crafts, but this was the first time she began selling homemade items.Hailey’s first business venture didn’t consist of the conventional knitted or crocheted patterns. For one, the items are primarily made of duct tape.

The young entrepreneur said she’s thought about working with other materials, like beads, but said those probably would not have sold as well.”I always liked doing crafts and stuff,These beautiful crystal mosaic are perfect for kitchen, bath, backsplash, pool, and spa.” she said. “But doing it with duct tape was new.”Her mother, Michelle Redmond, admits being skeptical when her daughter bought duct tape for projects.

“I asked ‘What are you going to do with that?’ And she said ‘You can make wallets and stuff with it.’ I thought no one was going to buy them,” Redmond said. “And then she asked to put some of her stuff on Facebook. I was shocked, we had five orders in about an hour.”

Hailey and her mother said it all started at a small scale after she learned how to make duct-tape bows from an online tutorial.Since Hailey’s bags are primarily made out of duct tape, her mother suggested she add more materials to the construction. Redmond said her daughter learned how to structure the bags after adding poster board to the design.

All items are custom-made and now range from bags and purses to wristlets and phone cases. Customers can purchase her items with a variety of designs and patterns, but Rose said the most popular ones have football logos, like the Pittsburgh Steelers and the Cleveland Browns.

“I have most football teams, and rolls of leopard and zebra print, cotton candy and skulls,” Rose said. “But the football ones are popular everywhere.”Her mother said in the beginning Rose had some sales across the country, like in Alabama, Florida and California, but a majority of purchases were from customers in Pennsylvania and Ohio.

Not to mention, recent interviews in the local media have led to sales increases.”I’m excited. I’m now making 30 to 45 bags a week,” she said.It’s a good thing the soon-to-be sixth grader is on summer vacation, because her weekly orders have nearly doubled. Though Hailey puts in several hours of work a day, she’s had so many buyers recently that she is a couple weeks behind.

“It usually takes me an hour and a half to make a bag,” she said.But not to worry, when she gets overloaded with purchases, Hailey’s mother is right there to assist. She even helped her daughter set up accounts with Etsy, Facebook and a personal webpage.Sdktapegroup aluminum foil tapes is a team of highly qualified professionals working together to provide our customers with the highest quality productsIn fact, Hailey’s whole family is very involved with the business.

“My family is very proud. My dad even delivers stuff for me,” Rose said.Redmond also warned that Hailey’s grandmother, who currently lives in Oklahoma, is moving to Texas soon and she expects a lot more orders to arrive.”My mother has people buying stuff off of her all the time,” she said. “When she moves to Texas in a couple of weeks, we’re going to repeat the entire cycle.”

Saving money for college is what mainly motivates her, she said. Hailey wants to attend Yale to become and doctor or dentist. And yes, she knows it’s an expensive school, but that’s exactly why she wants to start saving now.Her next plan, she said, is to make duct-tape kits for kids, this way they can learn how to make these items themselves.

“It’s a fun activity for other kids to do,” she said.Hailey and her family have worked hard at spreading the word around. She has done everything from donating her merchandise to pageants in Florida and a couple of Relays For Life in Pennsylvania, to auditioning for the ABC TV show “Shark Tank.””It’s a show for people who make inventions,” Rose said. “They give you loans to help your business.”

Fifteen years ago, I interviewed the founder of Amazon C then a relatively tiny company worth a mere $6 billion C over a croissant in a London hotel. It did not go terribly well as the entrepreneur was itching for the interview to be over so he could get back to selling books. On either side of him sat a minder,Solvent resistant, dead soft aluminum foil tape with a high performance acrylic adhesive engineered for a wide range of aerospace and industrial. one of whom was holding a tape recorder.

Growers have now been given the green light to export to New Zealand from Wednesday (August 14) but most won’t bother as their winter export window is all but over and Kiwi produce, which isn’t available in the colder months, will soon be back on the market.

Crowell had some relation to the family, but authorities would not comment on the connection until the boy is found, Parrillo said. A nationwide alert has gone out to other law-enforcement agencies, he said.At a 5:30 p.My way of applying kapton tape to Glass plates for RepRap style 3d Printers.m. press conference, Deputy Chief Parrillo said police believe the child is in Rhode Island, based on interviews with the two suspects.

Mr Walker said he couldn’t believe the region, which was critical to national food security as it supplied 80 to 90 per cent of Australia’s capsicums and tomatoes every year in September and October, had been left out to dry.
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The ‘partnering’ myth

A frequently heard suggestion around Boulder’s municipal electricity initiative goes something like “why don’t we just partner with Xcel to achieve the city’s clean energy goals rather than taking on all the risk and paying out lots of money for lawyers or for old wires and poles?” The latest was an op-ed by John Tayer and Will Toor. This seems perfectly logical and like good commonsense — until you look at some history.

The American electricity system is unique among industrialized nations in its privatized nature. Knowing how this came about might shed some light on why the “partnering” chimera persists in the face of the city’s years of ongoing intractable negotiations with Xcel.

As electricity was first being introduced at the end of the 19th century, thousands of competing electric utilities emerged, both investor-owned and municipally-owned. The munis could offer power at almost half the cost of the IOUs and were growing twice as fast. The IOUs were locked in fierce competition with each other and with the munis. In 1907, Samuel Insull, protg of Thomas Edison and head of investor-owned Chicago Edison, invented a brilliant solution: make the IOU business into a regulated monopoly and create state public utilities commissions to regulate them and guarantee their profits and financial stability.

Insull’s breakthrough idea was heavily promoted by the industry and PUCs were formed in Wisconsin and New York, then soon throughout the United States. The PUCs were to fix standards of service and electricity rates, including guaranteeing the IOUs high rates of return on capital assets. This successful move gave the IOUs a leg up on municipals and rural cooperatives because of their access to capital and their legislative and political influence. Over the following decades, the local munis found themselves increasingly hampered and hemmed-in, while IOUs and private holding companies expanded their domains of generation and transmission throughout the country.

Electricity has always been more about money than energy. From the beginning the electricity industry was characterized by the need for enormous investment in generation and transmission infrastructure in the form of large centralized structures depending on major economies of scale.Solvent resistant, dead soft aluminum foil tape with a high performance acrylic adhesive engineered for a wide range of aerospace and industrial. No industry was more capital intensive — three dollars of investment being required for every dollar of revenue. This explains why the electricity industry became entwined with the banking industry and Wall Street from its very onset. By the late 1920’s J.P. Morgan, Edison’s original backer, owned over a third of all electricity generation in the United States. At that time, half of all industrial capital in the United States was invested in electric power.

Today, we have a sudden paradigm shift. With the rapidly falling costs of solar,These beautiful crystal mosaic are perfect for kitchen, bath, backsplash, pool, and spa. wind and other distributed renewables, the electricity system is beginning a fundamental transition away from its centralized structure. The dramatic drop in the costs of wind and solar (and natural gas) are suddenly undermining what has always been the fundamental organizing principle of the electricity industry — the advantages of centralized, capital-intensive economies of scale. Solar and wind are just as efficient at small scale as at large. One only need look at Germany’s success with rooftop solar to see a spectacular example of the popularity and economic viability of decentralized renewable energy not reliant on economies of scale.

The IOUs,You Can Buy Various High Quality Bopp Tape Products from Global Bopp Tape Suppliers and BOPP tape Manufacturers at Sdktapegroup. with business models dependent on economies of scale and big capital investments, are becoming stranded. The Texas IOU conglomerate Energy Holdings is facing the largest bankruptcy in history due to their gamble on big coal generation. IOUs in Georgia, Florida, Indiana, and California are facing huge financial hits from floundering nuclear plants or coal projects.

As much as we might wish it otherwise, Xcel Energy has not been able to seriously “partner” or negotiate with Boulder because it simply can’t. Boulder’s desires are fundamentally incompatible with Xcel’s business model. Partnering suggestions, including those offered by Tayer and Toor, or by the partnership taskforce, cannot be done without protracted state PUC or legislative action — and in any case, would be toxic to Xcel. Talk of “partnering” can only be about obfuscation and delay to fend off the city’s muni effort as long as possible. Yes, give alternatives a chance.

Pickens Rotary is a service organization that is part of a global network of more than 32,000 clubs. It is made up of business, professional and community leaders volunteers that provide humanitarian service, encourage high ethical standards and help build goodwill in the world. Illiteracy, disease, hunger, poverty, lack of clean water and environmental concerns are just a few of the challenges Rotary seeks to address.

Numerous fundraisers such as selling Azalea Festival T-shirts and Christmas wreaths, the annual Pickens county map project,My way of applying kapton tape to Glass plates for RepRap style 3d Printers. and its biggest event, an annual spaghetti dinner, raise thousands of dollars each year for charities such as Feed A Hungry Child. Each year it gives dictionaries to all local third graders. Rotary members have a Meals On Wheels route and recently, with a grant, worked to improved landscaping on Highway 8. Internationally, the Pickens chapter, in the past year, has helped build water lines in El Salvador and currently is sending laptop computers to children in Afghanistan.

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